|Condition||This disease is spread by||Early symptoms||Time between exposure and sickness||Exclusion from school, early childhood centre, or work *|
|Rashes and skin infections|
|Chickenpox # **||Coughing, sneezing and contact with weeping blisters.||Fever and spots with a blister on top of each spot.||10–21 days after being exposed.||1 week from appearance of rash, or until all blisters have dried.|
|Hand, foot and mouth disease||Coughing, sneezing, and poor hand washing.||Fever, flu-like symptoms – rash on soles and palms and in the mouth.||3-5 days||Exclude until blisters have dried. If blisters able to be covered, and child feeling well, they will not need to be excluded.|
|Head lice (Nits)||Direct contact with an infested person’s hair, and less commonly by contact with contaminated surfaces and objects.||Itchy scalp, especially behind ears. Occasionally scalp infections that require treatment may develop.||N/A||None, but ECC/school should be informed. Treatment recommended to kill eggs and lice.|
|Measles ! # **||Coughing and sneezing. Direct contact with an infected person. Highly infectious.||Runny nose and eyes, cough and fever, followed a few days later by a rash.||7-21 days||5 days after the appearance of rash. Non-immune contacts of a case may be excluded.|
|Ringworm||Contact with infected skin, bedding and clothing.||Flat, ring-shaped rash.||4-6 weeks||None, but skin contact should be avoided.|
Rubella (German Measles) ! # **
|Coughing and sneezing. Also direct contact with an infected person.||Fever, swollen neck glands and a rash on the face, scalp and body.||14-23 days||Until well and for 7 days from appearance of rash.|
|Scabies||Contact with infected skin, bedding and clothing.||Itchy rash.||4–6 weeks (but if had scabies before it may develop within 1–4 days)||Exclude until the day after appropriate treatment.|
|School sores (Impetigo)||Direct contact with infected sores.||Blisters on the body which burst and turn into scabby sores.||Variable||Until sores have dried up or 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has started.|
|Slapped cheek (Human parvovirus infection) #||Coughing and sneezing. The virus may be passed from mother to child during pregnancy.||Red cheeks and lace-like rash on body.||4-20 days||Unnecessary unless unwell.|
Diarrhoea & Vomiting illnesses
|Undercooked food, contaminated water. Direct spread from an infected person or animal.||Stomach pain, fever, nausea, diarrhoea and/or vomiting.||Campylobacter 1–10 days
Cryptosporidium 1–12 days
Giardia 3–25 days
Salmonella 6–72 hours
|Until well and for 48 hours after the last episode of diarrhoea or vomiting.
Cryptosporidium – do not use public pool for 2 weeks after symptoms have stopped.
Salmonella - Discuss exclusion of cases and contacts with public health service.
|Hepatitis A !||Contaminated food or water, direct spread from an infected person.||
Nausea, stomach pains, general sickness with jaundice (yellow skin) appearing a few days later.
|15-50 days||7 days from the onset of jaundice.|
|Norovirus||Contact with secretions from infected people.||Nausea, diarrhoea/and or vomiting.||1-2 days||Until well and for 48 hours after the last episode of diarrhoea or vomiting.|
|Rotavirus **||Direct spread from infected person.||Nausea, diarrhoea/and or vomiting.||1-2 days||Until well and for 48 hours after the last episode of diarrhoea or vomiting.|
|Shigella !||Contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person.||Diarrhoea (may be bloody), fever, stomach pain.||12 hours–1 week||Discuss exclusion of cases and their contacts with public health service.|
|VTEC/STEC !(Verocytotoxin- or shiga toxin-producing E. coli)||Contaminated food or water, unpasteurised milk. Direct contact with animals or infected person.||High incidence of bloody diarrhoea, stomach pain. High rate of hospitalisation and complications.||2-10 days||Discuss exclusion of cases and their contacts with public health service.|
|Influenza and Influenza-like illness (ILI) **||Coughing and sneezing. Direct contact with infected person.||Sudden onset of fever with cough, sore throat, muscular aches and a headache.||1–4 days (average about 2 days)||Until well.|
|Streptococcal sore throat||Contact with secretions of a sore throat. (Coughing, sneezing etc.)||Headache, vomiting, sore throat. An untreated sore throat could lead to Rheumatic fever.||1-3 days||Exclude until well and/or has received antibiotic treatment for at least 24 hours.|
|Whooping cough (Pertussis) ! # **||Coughing. Adults and older children can pass on the infection to babies.||Runny nose, persistent cough followed by “whoop”, vomiting or breathlessness.||5-21 days||Five days from commencing antibiotic treatment or, if no antibiotic treatment then 21 days from onset of illness or until no more coughing, whichever comes first.|
|Conjunctivitis (Pink eye)||Direct contact with discharge from the eyes or with items contaminated by the discharge.||Irritation and redness of eye. Sometimes there is a discharge.||2–10 days (usually 3–4 days)||While there is discharge from the eyes.|
|Meningococcal Meningitis ! **||Close contact with oral secretions. (Coughing, sneezing, etc.)||Generally unwell, fever, headache, vomiting, sometimes a rash. Urgent treatment is required.||3-7 days||Until well enough to return.|
|Meningitis – Viral||Spread through different routes including coughing, sneezing, faecal-oral route.||Generally unwell, fever, headache, vomiting.||Variable||Until well.|
|Mumps ! **
|Coughing, sneezing and infected saliva.||Pain in jaw, then swelling in front of ear and fever.||12-25 days||Exclude until 5 days after facial swelling develops, or until well.|
* Seek further advice from a healthcare professional or public health service
** Vaccine-preventable and/or on the National Immunisation Schedule
! Notifiable disease (Doctors notify the Public Health Service)
# Pregnant women should seek advice from their maternity provider or G.P.